Rutin, a flavonoid found in large quantities in our food and also easily available in supplement form, has been shown in animal studies to be an effective slimming aid. It does this by inducing muscle cells to manufacture more mitochondria. So you’d expect rutin to also boost endurance capacity. And lo and behold, according to researchers at the National Ilan University in Taiwan this is indeed the case. In lab animals. The human equivalent of the dose tested on animals would be a couple of hundred milligrams of rutin a day. Exactly the amount found in most rutin supplements.
The researchers gave mice rutin [structural formula on the right] every day for a week, administering it orally. The mice were given 0, 15, 30 or 60 mg rutin per kg bodyweight daily. The human equivalent of these doses, for a person weighing 85 kg, would be about 0, 130, 260 or 520 mg rutin per day.
Rutin At the end of the 7 weeks, and after the mice had been given their last dose of rutin, the researchers got the animals to swim for 15 minutes, after which they examined the mice’s blood composition. In other experiments the researchers got their lab animals to swim to the point of exhaustion.
The figure below shows that rutin supplementation extended the length of time that the mice were able to swim. The figure also makes it clear how this was possible: rutin helps the muscles to be more economical with carbohydrates.
Red bars = glucose level after 15 minutes of swimming; blue bars = the amount of minutes that the mice were able to keep swimming.
The researchers discovered that, after the mice had swum to the point of exhaustion, the animals that had been given rutin had more antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GPx in their blood than the animals in the control group had. In addition, the mice that had been given rutin had less MDA, an indicator for free radical activity, in their blood.
Rutin boosts endurance capacity How rutin extended the lab animals’ endurance capacity is shown in the figure on the right. Rutin activates transcription factor PGF-1-alpha and the enzyme SIRT1 in the muscle cells. PGC-1-alpha and SIRT1 induce cells to make more and better mitochondria. As a result cells can go over more easily to using fat as a fuel, and fewer free radicals are released in this burning process.
“Our study results thus indicate that rutin treatment ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical fatigue”, wrote the researchers.
Rutin Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis with AMPK Activation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Decreased mitochondrial number and dysfunction in skeletal muscle are associated with obesity and the progression of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. The specific aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of rutin on mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle of high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Supplementation with rutin reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass, despite equivalent energy intake (p < 0.05). Rutin significantly increased mitochondrial size and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content as well as gene expression related to mitochondrial biogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), transcription factor A (Tfam), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase, sirtulin1 (SIRT1) in skeletal muscle (p < 0.05). Moreover, rutin consumption increased muscle adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by 40% (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggested at least partial involvement of muscle mitochondria and AMPK activation in the rutin-mediated beneficial effect on obesity. Source: http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/9/8152